Advantages and disadvantages of the presidential system of government
Constitutions that only require plurality support are said[ by whom?
The number of years may vary from country to country. France during the Algerian controversy switched to a semi-presidential system as did Sri Lanka during its civil war, while Israel experimented with a directly elected prime minister in In a parliamentary system, if important legislation proposed by the incumbent prime minister and his cabinet is "voted down" by a majority of the members of parliament then it is considered a vote of no confidence.
But under a presidential government you can do nothing of the kind. In fact, in Africa for example, the president is blamed for anything that goes wrong even it is clearly not his fault.
Features of presidential system of government
However, in the case of Israel, an unprecedented proliferation of smaller parties occurred, leading to the restoration of the previous system of selecting a prime minister. A country under enormous stress may, supporters argue, be better off being led by a president with a fixed term than rotating premierships. Unlike what would be possible in a presidential system, a perceived crisis in the parliamentary system might give disgruntled backbenchers or rivals an opportunity to launch a vexing challenge for a prime minister's leadership. On the other hand, winning the presidency is a winner-take-all, zero-sum game. Presidential system presidents may also be given a great deal of constitutional authority in the exercise of the office of Commander in Chief , a constitutional title given to most presidents. Many people consider presidential systems more able to survive emergencies. Furthermore, even when impeachment proceedings against a sitting president are successful, whether by causing his removal from office or by compelling his resignation, the legislature usually has little or no discretion in determining the ousted president's successor, since presidential systems usually adhere to a rigid succession process which is enforced the same way regardless of how a vacancy in the presidency comes about. Speed and decisiveness[ edit ] Some supporters of presidential systems claim[ who? Whenever a leadership election becomes necessary on account of a vacancy arising suddenly, an interim leader often informally called the interim prime minister in cases where this involves a governing party will be selected by the parliamentary party, usually with the stipulation or expectation that the interim leader will not be a candidate for the permanent leadership. The post of prime minister also called premier may also exist in a presidential system, but unlike in semi-presidential or parliamentary systems, the prime minister answers to the president and not to the legislature. After each is ended, the voters must elect another person or renew the mandate of the current president. The presidential system, therefore, ensures the stability of the government. Also, the party of the president will be more concerned about staying in power than on the problems of the people. Checks and Balances, 8 Stability[ edit ] Although most parliamentary governments go long periods of time without a no confidence vote, Italy , Israel , and the French Fourth Republic have all experienced difficulties maintaining stability.
A prominent example of such an accession would be the elevation of Vice President Gerald Ford to the U. More often than not, a premier facing a serious challenge resolves to save face by resigning before being formally removed— Margaret Thatcher 's relinquishing of her premiership being a prominent example.
Even if a president is "proved to be inefficient, even if he becomes unpopular, even if his policy is unacceptable to the majority of his countrymen, he and his methods must be endured until the moment comes for a new election".
One example is Japanwhere the national government uses the parliamentary system, but the prefectural and municipal governments have governors and mayors elected independently from local assemblies and councils.
Features of parliamentary and presidential form of government
Walter Bagehot criticized presidentialism because it does not allow a transfer in power in the event of an emergency. Even mild criticism from a backbencher could carry consequences serious enough in particular, removal from consideration for a cabinet post to effectively muzzle a legislator with any serious political ambitions. Nearly all parties including governing parties have a relatively simple process for removing their leaders. And the competition—whether multi-branch, multi-level, or multi-house—is important to those checks and balances and to our ongoing kind of centrist government. This pattern does not prevail in Latin American presidential democracies. Tyler blocked the Whig agenda, was loathed by his nominal party, but remained firmly in control of the executive branch. Therefore, especially in parliaments with a strong party system, other prominent members of the premier's party have a strong incentive to initiate a leadership challenge in hopes of mitigating damage to their party.
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